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Accident description
Last updated: 15 December 2017
Status:Final
Date:Thursday 13 April 1995
Time:22:26
Type:Silhouette image of generic B734 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Boeing 737-4Y0
Operator:MarkAir
Registration: EI-CEU
C/n / msn: 24345/1731
First flight: 1989
Total airframe hrs:14505
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 6
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 141
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 147
Airplane damage: Substantial
Airplane fate: Repaired
Location:Denver International Airport, CO (DEN) (   United States of America)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Domestic Scheduled Passenger
Departure airport:Kansas City International Airport, MO (MCI/KMCI), United States of America
Destination airport:Denver International Airport, CO (DEN/KDEN), United States of America
Flightnumber:523
Narrative:
A Boeing 737-4Y0, EI-CEU, was substantially damaged during landing at Denver, Colorado. There were no injuries to the 141 passengers, 4 cabin attendants, and two cockpit crewmembers aboard. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed.
The airplane was being operated by MarkAir as flight 523, scheduled domestic passenger service from Kansas City, Missouri, to Denver, Colorado.
According to the crew, the flight proceeded uneventfully and the approach briefing, radios, instruments, and speed bugs (Vref, 136 KIAS; target speed, 145 KIAS; Vref+15, 151 KIAS, based on a landing weight of 112,000 pounds) were set up for a planned landing on runway 17R. The first officer was flying the airplane.
After the airplane had been positioned on the downwind leg, the crew was offered the option of landing on runway 16. This was accepted but when told they could expect a delay to that runway, they requested and were cleared for a visual approach to, and landing on, runway 17R.
ATIS (automatic terminal information service) indicated the winds to be from 190 degrees at 18 knots. A surface weather observation in effect at the time indicated the winds were from 180 degrees at 19 knots. The first officer, who was flying the airplane, lined up with runway 17L and when the mistake was realized, they requested and were cleared to land on runway 17L.
At 500 feet above ground level, the glide slope aural warning sounded and was cancelled because the radios had been tuned to the navaids serving the parallel runway. At 100 feet AGL, the GPWS (ground proximity warning system) sink rate warning sounded, and the first officer added power. At 50 feet AGL and over the runway threshold, airspeed deteriorated. The first officer applied additional power and the captain added maximum thrust and forward control yoke pressure. A hard landing was made.

During its preflight inspection, the relief flight crew noticed damage to the airplane that included a compromised pressure vessel, a crushed tail skid, breaches in the skin with associated stringer damage, and a collapsed right main landing gear strut. The crew flying did not suspect any external damage to the aircraft until arriving at the gate and being told by ground personnel.
The data from the airplane's digital flight data recorder (DFDR) showed a vertical acceleration spiking at 3.64 g's when the airplane contacted the runway.

Probable Cause:

PROBABLE CAUSE: "Proper descent rate not maintained by the first officer, resulting in a hard landing. Factors were unfavorable wind conditions and the captain's inadequate supervision of the first officer. "

Classification:

Sources:
» NTSB


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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Kansas City International Airport, MO to Denver International Airport, CO as the crow flies is 850 km (531 miles).

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