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Accident description
Last updated: 23 October 2017
Status:Final
Date:Sunday 14 January 2001
Time:13:45
Type:Silhouette image of generic LJ60 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Learjet 60
Operator:Ark-Air Flight Inc.
Registration: N1DC
C/n / msn: 60-035
First flight: 1994
Total airframe hrs:2325
Engines: 2 Pratt & Whitney Canada PW305A
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 0
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Airplane damage: Destroyed
Airplane fate: Written off (damaged beyond repair)
Location:Troy Municipal Airport, AL (TOI) (   United States of America)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Executive
Departure airport:Dallas-Love Field, TX (DAL/KDAL), United States of America
Destination airport:Troy Municipal Airport, AL (TOI/KTOI), United States of America
Narrative:
The airplane collided with two deer shortly after touchdown at Troy Municipal Airport, AL (TOI). Following the collision, the airplane continued down the runway with the tires smoking, veered off the right side of the runway near the end, crossed a taxiway, impacted into a ditch and burst into flames. After the accident, the captain and first officer both reported that the thrust reversers failed to operate after they were deployed during the landing.

Examination of the landing gear found all three gear collapsed. The right and left main tires had areas of rubber that were worn completely through. The flaps were found extended, and both thrust reversers were found in the stowed position. Examination of the cockpit found the throttles in the idle position, and the thrust reverser levers in the stowed position.

Aircraft performance calculations indicate that the airplane traveled 1,500 feet down the runway after touchdown, in 4.2 seconds, before striking the deer. The calculations also indicate that the airplane landed with a ground speed of 124 knots. At 124 knots and maximum braking applied, the airplane should have come to a complete stop in about 850 feet. However, investigation of the accident site and surrounding area revealed heavy black skid marks beginning at the first taxiway turnoff about 1,500 feet down the 5,010 foot runway. The skid marks continued for about 2,500 feet, departed the right side of the runway and proceeded an additional 500 feet over grass and dirt.

The investigation revealed that deer fur was found lodged in the squat switch on the left main landing gear, likely rendering the squat switch inoperative after the impact with the deer, and prior to the airplane’s loss of control on the runway. Since a valid signal from the squat switch is required for thrust reverser deployment, the loss of this signal forced the thrust reversers to stow. At this point, the electronic engine control (EEC) likely switched to the forward thrust schedule and engine power increased to near takeoff power, which led to the airplane to continue down the runway, and off of it.

Probable Cause:

PROBABLE CAUSE: "On ground collision with deer during landing roll, and the inadvertent thrust reverser stowage caused by the damage to the landing gear squat switch by the collision, and subsequent application of forward thrust during rollout."

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: NTSB
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 2 years and 6 months
Accident number: ATL01FA021
Download report: Summary report

Classification:

Runway excursion

Sources:
» NTSB


Follow-up / safety actions
Following the accident, the manufacturer issued an Airplane Flight Manual revision that changed the name of the "Inadvertent Stow of Thrust Reverser During Landing Rollout" abnormal procedure to "Inadvertent Stow of Thrust Reverser After a Crew-Commanded Deployment" and moved it into the emergency procedures section.

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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Dallas-Love Field, TX to Troy Municipal Airport, AL as the crow flies is 1017 km (636 miles).

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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