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Accident description
Last updated: 23 October 2017
Status:Final
Date:Sunday 26 November 2006
Time:05:07
Type:Silhouette image of generic LJ35 model; specific model in this crash may look slightly different
Learjet 35A
Operator:Canadian Global Air Ambulance
Registration: C-GAJS
C/n / msn: 35-380
First flight: 1981
Crew:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 2
Passengers:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 4
Total:Fatalities: 0 / Occupants: 6
Airplane damage: Substantial
Airplane fate: Repaired
Location:Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, QC (YUL) (   Canada)
Phase: Landing (LDG)
Nature:Ambulance
Departure airport:Brunswick-Glynco Jetport, GA (BQK/KBQK), United States of America
Destination airport:Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, QC (YUL/CYUL), Canada
Narrative:
The aircraft, a Learjet 35A, operated on a medevac flight from Toronto-Lester B. Pearson International Airport to Brunswick.
The flight departed at 22:54 and landed at 00:45. The flight was routine; however, when the landing gear was lowered on the final approach, the left main gear down-and-locked light did not illuminate. The landing gear lights were turned on, and the crew, seeing the illumination of the landing lights, concluded that the affected landing gear was down and locked, and that the left gear down-and-locked light was burnt out. The aircraft landed without incident.
After embarking a patient and a passenger, the plane took off for Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport at 03:05. The captain was the pilot flying (PF), and the co-pilot was the pilot not flying (PNF). At 05:00, the aircraft was cleared for an instrument landing system (ILS) runway 06R approach; landing reference speed (Vref) was established at 124 knots. At about 10 000 feet during the descent, the aircraft was flying at a ground speed of about 360 knots. The weather at this time was as follows: wind 120° at two knots; visibility 15 miles, and a few clouds at 12 000 feet and 21 000 feet.
About 13 nautical miles (nm) west of the airport, the aircraft was descending through 7000 feet at a ground speed of 350 knots. The spoilers were twice deployed during the descent. At about 6 nm from the runway, the flaps were extended to 8° and then 20°. After it was confirmed that the landing gear was down and locked, the flap selector switch was moved to the DN (down) position to extend the flaps to 40°; the flaps and the position indicator remained at 20°. The first officer informed the captain of the discrepancy by pointing to the indicator and stated that the hydraulic pressure was normal. At that time, the aircraft was abeam the final approach fix, 1000 feet above the glidepath at 150 knots, 26 knots above Vref.
It was established that the runway was sufficiently long for a partial flap landing and the approach was continued. The crew members' intention was to exit at the end of the runway to be near their ground destination, and their plan was to deploy the spoilers and thrust reversers and to delay the use of the brakes after touchdown. At 500 feet above touchdown, the aircraft was about 1 nm from the threshold at approximately 155 knots and slightly above the glidepath. At about 200 feet above touchdown, the enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) produced oral alerts "TOO LOW FLAPS" indicating that the flaps were not in the landing configuration. The captain immediately requested flaps 40, and the co-pilot informed him that the flap indicator was at 20°.
Runway 06R is 9600 feet long by 200 feet wide, and there is an asphalt pad, 200 feet by 200 feet, at each end of the runway. The aircraft touched down about 1000 feet past the threshold at approximately 130 knots. According to the aircraft flight manual (AFM), the landing distance for the aircraft configuration at the time of landing was 3300 feet with a flap setting of 20°. At about 3500 feet from the threshold, the spoiler switch was set to the extend position (EXT), but the spoilers did not deploy, which went unnoticed by the crew. Starting at about 4800 feet, the captain attempted three times, without success, to move the thrust reverser levers beyond the idle/deploy stop. At about 8300 feet, the captain announced that there were no brakes. At the end of the runway, the captain called for the brace position. The aircraft was travelling at approximately 53 knots as it went off the end of the runway.
As the aircraft rolled through the soft ground, the left wing struck three light posts from the first row of approach lights. Shortly after, the nosewheel ran over a manhole after which the left wing struck three light posts from the second row of approach lights. The aircraft came to rest 600 feet past the end of the paved area off the end of the runway. Immediately after the aircraft came to a stop, the captain ordered the evacuation. There was significant damage to the aircraft in the area of the nosewheel, the left wing, and the left side of the fuselage.

Probable Cause:

Findings as to Causes and Contributing Factors:
1. A "B" nut loosened, resulting in a leak and depletion of the hydraulic fluid and preventing normal operation of the flaps, spoilers, thrust reversers, and wheel brakes.
2. The crew did not notice that there was a loss of hydraulic pressure and therefore did not plan for a landing without normal stopping systems or for the use of the emergency brake system.
3. When the aircraft landed, the flaps were extended to only 20°, the spoilers did not deploy because there was no hydraulic or backup air pressure, the thrust reversers did not deploy, normal braking did not work, and the emergency brake system was
not used. Consequently, the aircraft overran the runway.

Accident investigation:
cover
Investigating agency: TSB Canada
Status: Investigation completed
Duration: 1 year
Accident number: A06Q0190
Download report: Final report

Classification:

Runway excursion

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Map
This map shows the airport of departure and the intended destination of the flight. The line between the airports does not display the exact flight path.
Distance from Brunswick-Glynco Jetport, GA to Montreal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, QC as the crow flies is 1704 km (1065 miles).

This information is not presented as the Flight Safety Foundation or the Aviation Safety Network’s opinion as to the cause of the accident. It is preliminary and is based on the facts as they are known at this time.
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